Dependency and Modernization Theories.
These theories seek to answer the issue of underdevelopment
especially in the third world countries that faced colonial rule. The dependency
theory is based on the view that globalization came about through market
capitalism where the west exploits cheap labor and other resources in
developing nations in exchange for obsolete or poor technology (Mehhmet).
Simply, dependency theorists believe that rich nations depend on labor from
Modernization theory, on the other hand, is based on the
view that developing countries embarked on new strategies of development after
colonialism where industrialization efforts were meant to catch up with the
west. According to this theory, most difficulties experienced in the third
world are due to external factors such colonialism, multi-national companies,
and western-influenced financial companies. However, there is no clear-cut
difference between modern and traditional cultures, and still, there is no
concern of traditional values that contribute to development
Modifying the dependency theory
There has been a mentality that the third world is considered
to be poor and underdeveloped. The general notion is that developing nations
have no skills and resources to enable them come out of poverty, hence it will
always remain underdeveloped no matter the policies and efforts. This mentality
has changed over time now since most developing countries have employed
strategies to steer them towards development.
The third world countries have formulated effective state
policies and strategic partnerships, which are supported through obtaining
loans, credits, and foreign investments. This has enhanced industrialization
through engaging in trade and technology transfers, thereby, modifying the
Modifying the modernization theory
This theory has undergone quite a number of changes According
to the theory, a political society which is strong is crucial in enhancing
economic growth due to coercive powers and authority. Authoritarian regimes,
therefore, are necessary since they are in a better position to bring about
social order in the society where different groups compete for the economic and
social resources available.
In addition, the reconciliation theory which is concerned
with policies that can be used to attain democracies, and economic development
and stability has modified this one. The theory, therefore, looks into possible
issues or factors that derail development and try to find remedies for those
factors that hurt development.
in the developing world that prompted changes in Modernization and Dependency
The application of new technology in developing countries is
a major trend that has prompted changes in the two theories. In most scenarios,
technology has been recognized but not put into use. In the modernization theory,
the use of the technologies applied in developed countries by the third world
countries has made it possible for society to be termed creative. The
technology has made developing countries to evolve economically, socially and
Concerning the dependency theory, developed countries are
using technology as a strategy to exploit the developing countries. They offer
their outdated technologies to developing countries in the name of assisting, but
in real sense, their objectives are to exploit the limited resources available
in those countries. This has facilitated the changes in this theory, in that;
the developing countries are looking for ways to avoid such exploitations.
Globalization, which is the integration of political,
social, and economic cultures in the world, has propelled changes in the two
theories. Good communication networks around the world have enabled changes to
occur to the modernization theory. At the moment, information is transferred at
a high speed leading to quicker operation handling as compared to the past. Online
services have contributed a lot to the globalization aspect, which has brought
about changes in dependency theory, as developing countries are no longer
relying on developed countries for technological advances, but instead the
internet. This information can be applied within the revised theories’ coverage
to boost development in the developing countries. Therefore, due to
globalization the world has been reduced into a global village.
Democratization has been a rising trend in most developing
countries. Due to democratization, the developing countries have changed in
terms of urbanization, education, wealth, and even industrialization. This has
propelled changes in the theories of development. Democracy in the developing
countries has promoted social cultural integrations in that the conditions for
the foundation of democracy are based upon economic development and
modernization. Now that the people are able to share views freely, it has
promoted formulation of good decisions and rapid changes to the two theories as
the views of all people can be well-represented (Handel man).
Rural-urban migration has been on
the rise over the past years especially in developing nations. Most people move
from their rural areas that are usually subject to abject poverty hoping to
find greener pastures in urban areas. Urban centers are attractive since they
are associated with job opportunities, business activities, and social
utilities compared to remote rural areas. This is the reason why most urban
areas record big populations that were not there before. Therefore, migrants
have various needs that drive them to towns and cities, and there is possible
impact of the migration on the political system and the economic growth
of urban migrants
To earn better living and escape poverty. Rural areas are
often associated with high poverty levels whereby small-scale subsistence
farmers characterize them. The farmers barely make a living out of their small-scale
activity since they often have to support large families. Most resources from the
government may not go to these places, leaving locals without materials that
can improve their lives. Going to the city, therefore, gives them the chance to
access most of the country’s resources and the labor markets towards enhancing
their way of living.
Access to job opportunities in urban centers. Most young
people go to capitals and major towns to seek employment. Studies show that
most of the urban migrant job seekers are learned, and they migrate because of
the high probability that they will be hired in the urban areas and speculated
higher earnings. The formal sector that is sought by both city dwellers and
migrants pays better than the informal sector. However, migrants face cut-throat
competition on formal jobs because most people in urban centers have higher
levels of education.
Seeking better and higher education. It is common in most
developing countries to find rural areas that have limited or no access to
education. Some of these areas are forgotten when it comes to education. This
calls for rural people to send their children in urban centers where there are
plenty of educational facilities so as get education and make careers; and most
of them remain in these urban areas to seek employment. Lack of education is
the reason why rural areas face poverty and poor resource use.
To seek better urban life due to biased government policies
and migration forces. Employment opportunities and increased wage rates are
usually to the advantage of the urban dwellers. The biasness often creates an
imbalance that makes life in urban areas more attractive and comfortable
compared to rural life. This makes rural people to prefer to move to urban
areas to seek solace as through government action that makes life in the areas better
Either, migration forces such as family disagreements, and
wars and fights with neighbors in the rural areas may call for people to run
way to the urban centers whereby there is some peace. People would always move
to avoid such social conflicts because away in the urban centers they will
of migrant needs on political system
Rural-urban migration is a benefit
and a cost to the policy makers of any given country. The benefit derived is
that there is more workers and wide market in the urban centers that eventually
boost economic growth. However, urban migrants are a major drawback in growing
cities and towns as policy makers find them as a key obstruction to economic
development. When migrants come into urban areas, there is possible increase in
population to high levels and consequently congestion that translates to slum
dwelling. Policy makers, therefore, get a hard time trying to enhance proper
housing in the urban center.
Higher rates of migration, either,
causes chronic unemployment that exposes the urban areas to higher levels of
criminology as people try all means to put food at their tables. There is a
high chance for congestion that in turn wastes many resources, as well. For
example, a city that experiences congestions of people and traffic faces the
problems of resource wasting i.e. time and fuel used as people are stagnated
and cannot move due to human and traffic jams. Urban areas are also likely to
experience inadequate social amenities and facilities due to overpopulation.
Simply, overcrowded urban centers are susceptible to negative externalities
that are a possible cause of the market failure (Handelman).
How climatic change will
influence the developing world
Climate change is the change in the distribution of weather
patterns that lasts for an extended period. Climatic changes may arise due to
natural causes, volcanic activity or human causes. Climatic change has severe
effects on the developing countries, as it will threaten food security,
nutrition and agriculture, education, access to energy, and water and sanitation
Extreme weather conditions, and gradual climate risk will
affect all sectors of food security and nutrition in developing countries in
many ways, for instance, they will decrease food production. Due to limited
food supply, the standards of living of people will go down as poverty rate
increases. There will be food insecurity in developing world, which will hinder
the economic sustaining status of many countries. This is because almost all
developing countries depend mainly on agriculture as their main economy stay.
There will be a serious disruption of school progress,
drawing critical concern to shift vulnerable effects on school development;
this will be due to extended harsh climatic conditions, which are unbearable to
young children and especially adolescents. Children from poor families will be the
most affected by these extended climatic conditions. Frequent occurrence and
increase in intensity of drought will reduce learning time and migration among
communities will limit educational opportunities. Therefore, climate change can
affect education programs by limiting its accessibility.
Due to heavy rains brought about by climate change, water
quantity will increase in rivers and other catchment areas, which will affect
the operations of existing practices such as hydroelectric power and flood
control structures. Rivers will break their banks, and floods will rise to
destroy crops and take away animals. This incident will affect food security of
a country in coming days. In addition, due to total reliance of developing
countries in hydroelectric power, a slight water supply shortage will paralyze
most operations involving power. This is so, because power production will reduce
an incident, which will result in power rationing. This will hinder operations
in processing and other industries leading to slow development.
necessary to prevent the effects of climatic change
The developing world should extend to other electric power
sources like wind and nuclear energy, which are less affected by climatic
changes besides hydroelectric power. This will keep operations in industries
and other areas to run continuously even during harsh weather conditions. This
will allow operations in industries even during drought and heavy rains seasons
as power will be available from the alternative sources. This will keep the
pace of growth in the developing countries.
The developing world should come up with food storage programs which will curb the food shortages which may
occur in the countries during extended
drought .They should also come up with irrigation schemes to keep constant
production of food, even during the drought period. This will keep the economy
The developing world should shift their dependency on
agriculture in running the economy, to a more predictable field, which will not
be affected by climate change. The economy is usually affected by extended
climatic conditions. This is the major problem associated with most developing
countries’ economies. Developing countries will, therefore, maintain a strong
economy even when there are extended harsh climatic conditions, which will
enable them a continuous growth in development.
The developing countries should come up with flexible
education policies that will cater for the nomadic communities’ educational
services accessibility. They should develop mobile schools, which will be
available whenever the children migrate with their communities due to extended
harsh conditions in search for food and water.
that is suitable for addressing environmental issues in developing countries
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) whose objective is to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas addresses
the threat of climate change globally. The parties to this organizational body
have been meeting annually since 1995 to discuss the issues of greenhouse
effect, which is because of climate change. They resolved to reduce using
substances that produce many greenhouse gases. In addition, future global
warming should be limited to increase the length of lives of living things in
the world. This body has the responsibility to come up with policies to control
environmental degradation in the World (Handelman).
man, Howard. The Challenge of
Third World Development. Boston, Mass. [u.a.: Pearson, 2013. Print.
Ozay. Westernizing the Third World: The Eurocentricity of Economic
Development Theories. London: Routledge, 2002. Internet resource.
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