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Sample Essay on Impact of Homelessness and Literacy Levels in America

Abstract

This research explores the one of the major social problems in America; homelessness. It is an embarrassing story to imagine that America, despite being a developed country, has a portion of its population sleeping rough in the streets. Despite the government’s effort to address the issue, over 3.5 millions of Americans are still homes. This research unmasks the statistical details of the number of people sleeping rough, the reasons as to why they ended up homeless as well as their day-to-day challenge.  The information gathered in this research can be used to challenge the American authorities on their commitment to address homelessness.

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The researcher utilizes the available data from the National Alliance to End Homelessness online library as well as scholarly published studies that are relevant to the topic. Although the study is focused on homelessness in America at large, a particular interest is given to the Wisconsin State as a sample state for the 47 states.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Content

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Historical Background………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Causes of Persistent Homelessness…………………………………………………………………………… 9

Impacts of Homelessness…………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Impacts to the Homeless……………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Impacts to the Public……………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Homelessness and illiteracy…………………………………………………………………………….. 13

America’s Response…………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

The US Federal Government’s Response to Homelessness…………………………………………….. 14

States Government Responses…………………………………………………………………………. 16

What should be done………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Appendix A…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20

Glossary…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Appendix B…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

References…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Walking down the streets of a United States city in the evening can be a mind-relieving exercise; enjoying the blaze and the bird’s music as they escort the sun down the hills. Suddenly, the experience turns distasteful as you walk past people hunched down with their scrambled belonging. At the onset, one may imagine that these persons have taken a rest before they trace their way back home. At a closer look, however, you notice that the scrambled stuffs include most of the fundamental possessions of an ordinary person such as clothes and cooking utensils. The only difference is that these people’s scrambled items are old, dilapidated and, in most of the times, dirty. As the sun disappears down the hills to welcome the chilly dusk, these people assembles their items under the trees, in the building corridors, under parked cars and such like places in readiness for the coming night. They look for the best means, under that circumstance, to keep themselves warm for it will be a long and cold night out in the open. This is the plight of millions of homeless Americans who have no regular place to call home.

Figure 1. A homeless person with his belongings scattered along the pavement

Homelessness in America has been a persistent social problem in the country’s history.  According to Perl et al (2014), there are about 500,000 homeless people in a single night throughout the US. This figure includes the chronic and the partial homeless, either hosted in transition houses or simply loitering in the streets. The number of homeless people increased rapidly following the 2008-09 recession. Although the country has reported a slight decline in the homeless population for the past few years, the number of homeless individuals across America is still calling. Ordinarily, no single human being should be going through the mental and physical torture of being homeless. However, the latest report indicates that about 3.5 million Americans are homeless, children accounting for one million of the homeless. A disturbing factor in the homelessness reports is the revelation that children make the majority of the homeless population. While the total number of homeless people declines, notes that the number of children’s on the streets is on the rise. However, is America doing, and what should it address this problem? This research aims at assessing the extent and the impacts of homelessness in America. It explores facts about the issue both in the past and at the present to evaluate the country’s response to the menace.  In this analysis, a particular interest is given to Wisconsin, and that will be used as a sample state where necessary.

Historical Background

There has been a controversial debate as people try to trace the roots of homelessness in America. While some people argue that homelessness arose because of policy changes in 1980s, others trace it back to the Great Depression of 1929. Although these two periods led to a sharp increase in the number of homeless individuals, homelessness had been prevalent in America from as early as the 1600s. According to Kusmer (2002), homeless people in 1600s were believed to be outcast from their respective communities. People would be thrown out of the community as a punishment for their flawed characters. During this period, however, the homeless would be accepted in other villages as long as they proved to the village elders that they were ready to improve their flawed behaviors.

The idea of homelessness in the 1600s was a mere punishment to encourage adherence to the communal morals. During the colonial era, however, homelessness became a serious problem, one that was not readily reversible. During this period, people would be rendered homeless by circumstance such as forced evacuation by the British settlers.  In addition, the demanding economic times forced the poor people to vacate from their native homes in such of employment, mainly as unskilled labor in agricultural farms. Unlike the homelessness of the 1600s, the colonial era society was not mindful of the plights of the homeless. This, as Kusmer elaborates, was as a result of the individualism culture that the Native Americans inherited from the colonial masters (2002).

Even after America gained independence in the 18th century, some Americans still did not have a place to call home even in the newly declared Free State. Most of the homeless included the freed slaves, some of whom had been fetched from different parts of the continent to work in British estates in America. Although the independent government instigated programs to resettle, the displaced Americans Kusmer notes that some were not lucky to benefit from such programs and remained roaming in the streets (2002). As a free state, America’s economy grew rapidly welcoming the era of great urbanization of 1820-1850. During this period, American’s social, cultural and political settings evolved drastically, and so did the increase in homelessness. There were increased rates of immigration as more and more people moved in such of economic opportunism. The rate of growth in urban areas outmatched the rural areas, prompting people to settle in urban areas. There were no enough housing facilities in the urban areas to cater the increased number of settlers. For this reason, some of the people who move to the cities in search of promising opportunities ended up homeless. Despite the rapid growth in the economy, the period was marked by low job security due to the bumpy business cycles. People who worked in railroads constructions and the mining industries would often lose their jobs, despite having relocated from their original inhabitants in such of jobs.

In 1870, America experienced unprecedented civil wars, which to some extent, stagnated the activities of the urbanization period. This stagnation led to a temporary decline in homelessness. In addition, the government’s response to the increased homelessness during the urbanization period was taking effect. For example, the government enforced the vagrancy law that outlawed sleeping or begging around in the city. The decline in homelessness rates in 1970s was, however, temporary, as it would rise again during the prolonged depression of 1873-1879 and the subsequent economic panic of the 1890s.

Homelessness continued to increase throughout the early decades of the 20th century. There were series catastrophic and economic events that led to the rapid growth in the number of homeless. For instance, the 1927 Mississippi floods swept away homes of thousands of Americans, some of whom were never resettled. The 1929 Greet Depression that is said to increase the number of homeless to an unprecedented level followed this. The government acknowledged homelessness as one of the major problems following the Great Depression. It, therefore, gave it a priority in its post-depression recovery programs. As a result, several homeless Americans were resettled between 1933 and 1936 under the Federal Transient Service. This program recorded a reduction in number of homeless individuals; however, its success was short-lived, as the World War II would displace even more people.

Homelessness persisted throughout the 20th-century post the world wars. Although the government would occasionally fund housing programs as a response to the menace, these programs only reduced the number of homeless but others would later lose their homes to join the homeless group. In addition, a single economic or natural event would cause a sudden increase of the homeless population. In addition, the emergence of other social problems in 1980s such as drugs and substance abused has significantly contributed to an increase the homelessness. Despite the economic growth recorded in the past few decades, the country’s is still struggling with the homelessness issue.

Today, the National Alliance to End Homelessness classifies homelessness as a leading social problem that needs to be addressed with urgency (endhomelessness.org). For the last one decade, however, the number of homeless people has been declining. Although some of the recent economic events such as the 2008-2009 depression are believed to have worsened the issue, the percentage increase during these years is not statistically significant. However, the number of homeless people has reduced significantly from 2011 onwards. In 2013, for example, the number of homeless individuals in a single night was 610,042, which was a 3.7% improvement from the previous year estimates (endhomelessness.org). The following table summarizes the recent data on the state of homelessness in America report, released in 2014. Comparatively, chronic homeless is a serious problem since it accounts for more than half of all the homeless.

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
overall 763010 759101 671888 664414 643076 649917 636017 633782 610042
Chronic homeless 444027 452580 423377 415202 404957 407966 399836 394379 387845

 

Figure 2. Number of people homeless per a single night Estimate

Causes of Persistent Homelessness

Poverty is the first and primary cause of homelessness in America. Despite the growth in the economy recorded in the past years, the gap between the poor and the wealth is still significant. Therefore, the rich are getting richer while the poor cannot afford even the most fundamental. Because of poverty, homeless families are unable to educate their children. Lack of quality education results in inadequate generation in the future. As results, children born of homeless families have a higher chance of becoming poor and homeless in the future. There is, therefore, a cycle of poverty and hence homelessness.

The increased rates of unemployment in America also contribute to homelessness. As McNamara (2008) implies, unemployment has a positive correlation to homelessness, and that explains why homelessness increase during the economic recession. Jobless people and those that are underemployed do not afford to own homes owing to the rising cost of housing. They are also ineligible for mortgages due to lack of a steady income. In addition, homelessness reduces a person’s chance of securing a good employment. For this reason, it is hard for homeless people acquire a home out of their initiative, resulting in persistent homelessness.

Another reason as to why millions of Americans are rendered homeless is the hiked cost of housing in America today. According to McNamara, the cost of buying a home or even letting a decent unit has skyrocketed over the years (2008). In addition, modern development in America has seen the replacement of low-rent units with expensive and magnificent structures. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the poor American to own or even let a simple house.

There are also certain social and family dysfunctional problems contributing to increased homelessness. According to a survey done by the US conference of mayors, for instance, 46% of the homeless cited domestic violence as a cause of their status. In addition, there are increased rates of child neglect resulting from divorce and single parenthood. Neglected children lack the necessary support, tempting them to wander in the streets.

Health problems and lack of affordable health care have also contributed to the increased rates of homelessness. Mental illness is the leading health problem that has sent people to the streets. According to the data availed by the National Alliance to End Homelessness, one fifth of all the homeless in 2013 suffered from one or more mental illness (endhomelessness.org). In addition, an increased incidence of drug abuse has significantly ruined people’s mental and physical abilities.

Impacts of Homelessness

It is no doubt that homelessness is a present social issue in America; but what are its impacts to the homeless, the society and the burden to the country at large?

Impacts to the Homeless

One of the greatest issues that face the homeless communities is the exposure to health risks. As Perl and others found out, explain, homeless individuals can hardly afford quality health care (2014). They often do not have medical cover and most of them are even ineligible for Medicaid plan. In addition, homeless people are often exposed to health risks such as extreme weather conditions and poor hygiene and sanitation. This exposure makes the homeless more susceptible to diseases such as cold injuries, skin diseases and cardio-respiratory diseases, among others. The living conditions of the homeless also expose them to malnutrition and unhealthy eating habits that are both risk factors for health. In addition, homeless persons are at a higher risk of experiencing physical and sexual abuse. They do not guarantee to personal security, exposing them to robberies and sexual harassments.

Aside from health issues, homeless people battle psychological trauma because of their condition. According Juchniewicz (2011) explanation, homeless individuals view themselves as failures since they are unable to afford what the society considers as basic; shelter. The mere thought that they are likely to remain homeless forever tortures their psychological being making them withdraw from the rest of the community. According to the findings by Juchniewicz, homeless people have low self-esteem and often have no ability to improve their condition (2011). Instead, most of them turn to drug abuse to escape from the reality. They also have a higher chance of engaging in illegal activities in the effort to earn a living. As a result, homeless is having an increased chance of being arrested and incarcerated.

From the historical times, homeless people, especially the chronic homeless, have faced discrimination by the society. According to Will (2012) homeless are often stereotyped as criminals, mentally challenged and illiterate. Although such qualities are prevalent among the homeless, it is inappropriate for the society to generalize since they do not apply singularly to all the homeless. The society blames them for their situation, questioning how they have been unable to get themselves a shelter. For this reason, homeless individuals have a hard time securing a good job, thus diminishing their ability to get themselves out of the homeless pit. In addition, the government outlaws homeless people’s activities including begging and sleeping rough. Such laws have created an enmity between the homeless the law enforcers as well as the community.

In addition to the problems that face an adult homeless person, being homeless takes a toll on a child’s life. Children’s childhood environment has a greater impact on their development as well as the long-term life. Prolonged exposure to trauma and tragic episodes can, according to child psychologists, weaken children’s brain development that results in lifetime problems. For homeless children, however, traumatic experiences such as domestic violence, lack of sufficient playground and constant shifting from one place to another are norm on day-to-day basis. These adverse experiences may lead to impairments to their emotional and cognitive developments

Impacts to the Public

One of the immediate effects of homelessness on the community is the increase in crime rates. According to research by Foscarinis (2011), there is a correlation between increased homelessness and insecurity. Additionally, homeless people are at a higher chance of engaging in crime owing to their poverty and desperation status.  They commonly engage in petty crimes such as pickpocketing and shoplifting to sustain themselves since they hardly have a regular source of income. Therefore, homeless people pose a security threat to the neighboring community.

There is also the environmental impact of homelessness. As Foscarinis states, homeless people do not have the basic facilities including appropriate sanitation (2011). In urban areas, for example, homeless people sleep in the doorways of people’s business from where they dispose of their wastes including human wastes. They also inhabit other people’s yards and parking areas in search of a shelter. Lack of proper means of waste disposal causes environmental hazard in addition to adding the cleanup cost.

Homelessness and illiteracy

One of the challenges that face homeless children is increased absenteeism due to the high frequency of their families’ movements. Moreover, they also change schools so often as their parent shift from one location to another or when they are placed on foster care parents. In addition, homeless children are affected by other factors such as fatigue, poor nutrition and worry of what the future holds for them. As a result, homeless children perform poorly than their peers from permanently housed families. According to a study by Olisa et al., children from homeless families scores 75% below their grade level in reading. They also score poorer that their peers in the other two measures of literacy, which are verbal and organizational skills.

Scholars concur that there is a link between homelessness and illiteracy. As Brandt (2011) found out, low literacy among the homeless is not just with the children but with the adults as well. Most of the homeless cannot read even a simple job announcement, thus, diminishing their chance of securing a job. For this reason, there is a need to address literacy levels among the homeless population as a way of saving them from homelessness. As Brandt explains, illiteracy is costly, not just to the individuals, but also to the country at large (2011). Illiterate people are less productive since they cannot fit in most of the available job opportunities.

America’s Response

The US Federal government’s Response to Homelessness

The US federal government’s determination to curb homelessness took a center stage in 1980. As Perl and others point out, the government showed its commitment to cater for the homeless community in 1983 (2014). However, some anti-homelessness programs were initiated in 1970. For example, a less prominent Runaway and Homeless Youth (RHY) program was launched in 1974 to take care of homeless and teenagers (Perl et al., 2014). As Perl and others explain, the government launched the RHY to relieve the flooded juvenile system. This program was informed by the increase in the number of children and teenagers arrests because of increased homelessness. By 1983, the government realized that the problem with homelessness was not restricted to children and teenagers. Further, the government audit showed that the homeless lacked the basics, including, food, clean water and medicine. To address this, the federal government hurled food reservoir program named, the Emergency Food and Shelter (EFS) whose single role was to provide food for the homeless. EFS program has survived to date, offering necessities to the chronic homeless.

Although the EFS program was successful in providing aid to the homeless, the growing number of homeless people was overwhelming it. There were also no legal grounds to support aid assistance to the homeless. In 1987, Stewart McKinney sponsored an Act of Parliament in those defined different programs that would cater for the homeless. The Stewart McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, which was later named McKinney-Vento Act, defined how homelessness would be addressed under different federal government departments (Perl et al., 2014). The McKinney-Vento Act states that homeless children has a right to education and healthcare services and should not, by any means, be discriminated. The defined how government programs towards homelessness should be monitored across government departments. For instance, the department of housing and urban development should provide cheap and affordable housing units while the Department of Labor offers job opportunities to the homeless. On the other hand, the Department of Veterans was required to take care of the ex-military homeless to assist them get back to normal life.

Since 1980s to date, the government has been working towards enacting a permanent solution to homelessness. However, there have been challenges as some programs fail in the onset. Recently, however, the government, through the minister for housing and planning has restated its commitment to tackling homelessness by 2016. Through a policy document that was released in March 2013, the Government highlighted its six key components that will lead to a long-term solution to homelessness. These comprehensive plans proposed measures that prevent homelessness, eliminates the need for vagrancy, eradicates long-term transition housings and establish permanent housing solutions instead. Lastly, the government has promised to ensure effective service delivery as well as improve and coordinate its funding programs. Although the effectiveness of this policy remains to be seen, it looks encouraging and, if well implemented, it may lead help the government contain the homelessness menace.

States Government Responses

In addition to the Federal government’s anti-homelessness programs, different states are also implementing their local programs. In the State of Wisconsin, for example, the state government has committed to implementing the McKinney-Vento Act. Through the Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) program, for example, Wisconsin has ensured that children from homeless families enroll in schools even without the basic medical and educational records that are compulsory when enrolling a child at school (Barnow et al., 2000). The programs have also reinstated under-age school dropouts to their former schools or any other relevant institution. This program has increased the number of homeless children and teenagers accessing quality education. Wisconsin is also running other homeless-targeted programs such as the Veteran Assistance Program that collaborates with the federal government in giving aid to homeless veterans. Wisconsin has also established temporary homes for the homeless, such as the Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin Homeless Shelters & Services for the Needy, which address the immediate needs of the homeless.

Despite the remarkable commitment by various governments to support the homeless families, different state governments have been critiqued for their harsh laws on homeless individuals. As Will (2012) illustrates, the federal and state’s laws often criminalized some of the activities that are part of the life of a homeless person. Undertakings such as vagrancy and panhandling have been outlawed since the industrialization age. While such laws are necessary for apprehending crimes, they are insensitive to the homeless families. According to a report by Will (2012) law enforcers have often carried out random sweeps that ends up with confiscation of homeless people’s belonging in the bid to keep them off the streets.  Moreover, some states such as Florida have regularly discouraged the issuance of food and aids to the homeless, arguing that this can increase homelessness (Ross, 2011). As Will explains, homeless people engage in such activities either as a way of earning a livelihood or for lack of an option (2012). For instance, homeless persons may sit idle in the street entire day because they do not have a job. They will also sleep there since they cannot afford a shelter. However, the criminalization of homelessness is slowly ending as more and more states assent to the Homeless bill of rights, a set of laws that outlaws discrimination of the homeless.

What should be done

In as much as the government is doing a noble course of providing food for the homeless through programs such as EFS, this is only a temporary solution. Unless the government addresses the causes of homelessness, there will always be a homeless population to care for. The annual fiscal budget will always contain ‘food aid for the homeless,’ as caring for the homeless becomes part of the countries recurrent expenditure. To avoid such, the government should address the work for a long-term solution whose baseline is to address the cause. The following is a list of the few measures that the country needs.

Firstly, the country should address the mental status of its people. In my opinion, enhancing the people’s mental stability is the immediate action to take in addressing homelessness. Even if the government created jobs or paid people for being homeless, mentally ill people cannot put their lives together. Mental illness includes people who have given up on life after being depressed and traumatized by tragic experiences. They also include the drug addicts whose life revolves around getting money to buy drugs and have forgotten about every other aspect of life. These descriptions fit the majority of the homeless Americans. Their solution is not in economic aids, but health and rehabilitation programs.

Secondly, the government should eradicate poverty among the poorest. Eradication of poverty in this context should not be evaluated by the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country, but on what the lowest earners can achieve for themselves. The government should provide not just the job opportunities, but also the relevant skills for today’s job market. Most of the homeless people are uneducated and unskilled. The government should establish a path from homelessness that will see go through skills training to increase their employability.

Last, the solution to homelessness lies with the people of America more than the Federal or even the States government. The government should not underestimate what the community can do in assisting the homeless. However, there has to be a bridge to close the gap between the homeless and the middle and high-class America. Today, the American society views the homeless as criminals, lazy and disadvantaged. This notion can be cleared by educating the public that homeless can be as successful as any other person educates. Once homeless people are accepted back in the society, they will be free to interact and learn from the public. It will also be easy for them to secure unskilled job offers within the community. In addition, the government may initiate a community Development Corporation in which neighborhoods join hands to assist the homeless within their locality. This way, the community can easily identify the homeless who need any form of health intervention and them who only require financial aid.

Conclusion

Homelessness is a persistent problem in America. Although the number of homeless people has been on the decline for the past years, the statistics are still overwhelming. Homeless people undergo serious challenges, which should not be subjected to any human being. For example, they exposed to health risks as well as psychological problems. They are also discriminated by the society who often blames them for their situation. Homeless people battle high illiteracy level, which decrease their chances of securing employment. The law enforcers are also targeting the homeless while pursuing lawbreakers. The findings that homeless people are more likely to be criminals have worked against the non-criminal homeless, since they are often the first suspect whenever a crime occurs.

Although the Federal and the state governments have shown commitments in addressing homelessness problem, their efforts are yet to overcome the challenge. While some of the short-term solutions such as providing food and medicine to the homeless are in order, a long lasting solution can only be achieved if the country addresses the factors that send people out of their homes. This would include ending poverty and more importantly, providing mental health care.

Appendix A

Glossary

Homelessness– Is a state of having no regular place of settlement, and specifically, the state of having no fixed night residence . Often, homeless people sleep rough in the streets or keep moving from one transition home to another.

McKinney-Vento Act– is an Act is a Federal law that defends the rights of a homeless child. It is named after its sponsors in the House Representatives Stewart McKinney and Bruce Vento. The Act was approved and took effect in 1987.

Bill of Rights– also referred to as the Homeless Person’s Bill Rights, is a set of regulations that prohibits discrimination of the homeless. The bill recognizes the homeless’ rights to quality healthcare, education, the right to vote and so on. The bill is already under consideration in the majority of US states while a few has approved it as their law.

Appendix B

This Photo was distributed by Sarah Wilhoit in the forcechange.com website.  The photo accompanied a petition to the National Alliance to End Homelessness to complain about their short-term ant-homelessness programs. The petition recommended some of the long-term measures that the government should be looking into.

References

Barnow, S., Barnow, Thomas, Kaplan and R.A. Moffit (2000). Evaluating Comprehensive State Welfare Reforms: The Wisconsin Works Program. Albany, NY: The Rockefeller Institute Press

Brandt, Deborah (2001). Literacy in American Lives. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press

Foscarinis, M. (2011). Homelessness in America: A Human Rights Crisis. JL Soc’y13, 515. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015  from http://law.wayne.edu/journal-of-law-society/pdf/maria_foscarinis.pdf

Juchniewicz, M., Melissa (2011). Visible Voices: Literacy and the Invisible Homeless. Bloomington IN: Xliribis LLC.

Kusmer, L., Kenneth (2002). Down & Out, on the Road: The Homeless in American History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

McNamara, H., Robert (2008). Homelessness in America (3 Volumes). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

National Alliance to End Homelessness. (2014) The State of Homelessness in America 2014. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015  from http://www.endhomelessness.org/library/entry/the-state-of-homelessness-2014

Olisa, J, Patterson, J and Wright, F. 2010 Turning the Key: Portraits of Low Literacy amongst People with Experience of Homelessness. Homeless pages. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015  from http://www.homelesspages.org.uk/node/24152

Perl, Libe et al. (2014). Homelessness: Targeted Federal Programs and Recent Legislation. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015  from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL30442.pdf

Ross, Janell. (2011). U.S. Cities Criminalize Homelessness, Violate Human Rights Agreements. Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015  from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/26/us-cities-criminalize-homless_n_938095.html

Will, A. (2012). Beating Down the Lowly: The Criminalization of the Homeless and Alternative Solutions. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015 from http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1118&context=cus

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