Fracking, also known as hydraulic fracturing, is a technique used in the extraction of petroleum from deep underground rocks. Gas extracted using this technique contributes substantially in satisfying local demand for the product therefore minimizing the USA’s dependence on foreign oil. There are those who believe that fracking has improved the economy of the nation. However, fracking procedures appear to be a greater menace on the environment than it had been anticipated. Its effects on the environment include water pollution and minor earthquakes which are a threat to human life. Fracking is beneficial to the economy yet it is potentially disastrous to the environment especially when companies fail to be socially responsible making a controversial issue.
Benefits of fracking
The US has been less reliant on foreign oil because of fracking showing the importance of this process to the nation. At the same time, the energy prices are relatively low while the US is becoming more independent in regards to energy generation. This has made it the second leading nation in the world in regards to natural gas production after Russia. Many of the low-income towns have benefited in terms of their economy due to fracking because of the fact that the process leads to creation of jobs which generates money to the economy and community at large. Towns such as North Dakota are perfect examples of those that have benefited from fracking especially because of the low level of unemployment in the nation.
Problems associated with fracking
Fracking has been found to be a great threat to the environment. Chemicals used and produced in the process can mix with sand and water causing water contamination while increasing the methane level in water from the wells. At the same time, the oil which has been extracted through the process of fracking is more risky and difficult to transport (Roosevelt Institute, 2011).
Political and ethical issues related to fracking
Fracking has been a debatable issue especially in the US. Many are worried about its effects on the environment. However, there are fears that politics may cause these possible threats to be overlooked. This is because of the fear of an energy crisis coupled by the fact that many people benefit financially from the fracking making it the industry indespensible in USA’s quest not to be dependent on oil imports. Natural gas is a component that is critical to the government especially its plan to use clean energy by the year 2035 (Vignette, n.d). Nevertheless, there are some states which are ethically concerned and would rather have sustainability than economic profits. States such as New York and Quebec banned all the fracking activities.
Majority of people believe that if fracking is practiced in an ethical manner, it will remain to be the best thing to ever happen to America. They believe that the dangers posed by the natural gas extraction process can be minimized by safety precautions. For instance, the wells should be built properly and cemented in a way that prevents chemicals from infiltrating the groundwater. At the same time, any potential leaks discovered during transportation of the natural gas should be fixed immediately to minimize the potential dangers. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also taken the initiative to ensure that pollution is minimized by regulating the emission of volatile organic compounds (Vignette, n.d). At the same time, the oil and gas companies are encouraged to be socially responsible when extracting natural gas. For instance, they can conduct hydraulic fracking without using chemicals that would cause water pollution.
In conclusion, fracking remains a controversial issue in the US because of the benefits that it has brought to the nation. However, the resultant destruction of the environment make many question whether it is justifiable to continue using the process. It is high time that people, organizations, governments and companies take initiative to ensure that those who conduct fracking do it in a socially responsible manner. If no proper action is not taken, then of the environment is in danger –and so it human life.
In chapter 1 of the titled The Right is Right, Klein has made a thought-provoking regarding climate change caused by carbon emission from various industries. “… the US Chamber of Commerce, in its bid to prevent the EPA from regulating carbon emissions, argued in a petition that in the event of global warming, populations can acclimatize to warmer climates via a range of behavioral, physiological and technological adaptations (Klein, 2014).” This is a serious action that the US Chamber of Commerce is trying to make which no one can agree with them. For a long period of time, the world has been working towards maintaining sustainability and fighting against global warming by advising companies, organizations and people who are in the manufacturing industry to embrace environment-friendly methods in their industries. The statement by the US Chamber of Commerce is contrary to the ideals of sustainable development.
One thing that the US Chamber of Commerce must think about is the potential or possibility of everyone adapting to the strong environmental climates without any form of struggle. There is no way in which people will adapt to causing natural disaster to the environment which they live in for the sake of finding jobs and acquiring better homes
The government cannot make promises that it will protect its citizens and the immigrants from the harsh conditions of lack of food and water. It may succeed in building the mega-ports industrial farms and luxury resorts but that would not change the lives of everyone because people are not in the same level in life (Klein, 2014). Those who will suffer the most are the poor because they will not properly adapt in a nation where there is drought and famine, harsh climate, bad food (genetically modified food) and no safe water for them to drink. To make matters worse, the citizens of America may end up starting conflicts over water, arable land and oil because of this bad move by the US Chambers of Commerce in promoting carbon emission on the environment.
In the recent past, several multinational companies have expressed fear regarding the ways in which climatic change could affect their businesses (Klein, 2014). They foresee a major disaster ahead. Companies like Chipotle and Starbucks are worried on how the extreme weather may end up impacting the kind of ingredients that they use to make their products. It shows that not only the citizens (poor and immigrants) would suffer but also bigger organizations will be affected. There is a possibility that the climatic change would negatively affect the economy of the nation. For instance, it may end up costing the US billions of dollars because of the rise in sea levels. This clearly indicates that the move by the US Chambers of Commerce to stop EAP is baseless and has not been thought of properly. At the same time, one might say that the move is selfish and only looks on one side instead of focusing on the bigger picture especially the impact it may have on the citizens.
In conclusion, the statement made by Klein is wrong. There is no way in which the population can adapt technologically, physiologically and behaviorally to the harsh climatic changes caused by increased emission of carbon on the environment. If nothing is done, the nation the citizens will end up suffering and facing the strong repercussions of climatic change. The people, organizations and companies should take the initiative to prevent this move and allow EAP to promote sustainability for the future of the nation and its generations.
In his essay “Think like a Mountain”, Aldo Leopold examines the interconnectedness if various elements in the ecosystem. It is rather absurd for people to think of that elements in the ecosystem exist in isolation. A mountain may seem to be a huge and tall stone covered in trees but there is a strong connection between living things, mankind itself –thus the reason for its existence. In case of extinction, then it means that several things would die. By saving the mountains, the trees or the wild animals living in it, is a way of saving nature itself.
When Leopold watched the wolf die, he knew that it did not deserve such kind of a death and neither did the mountain. This is because, when there are fewer wolves in the mountain, it means that there would be more deer making the experience of hunting amazing and interesting (Leopold, 1994). However, this was not an excuse to kill the wolves because their lives also matter to the environment. They make the cycle of life in the mountain complete. The wolves help in trimming the large herds of deer in the mountain by killing and eating them enabling them to fit comfortably in the space where they all reside. If the wolves become extinct after being hunted down and killed by hunters, they are as well putting the lives of the deer at risk because as they continue to grow, the available space will not be enough to accommodate them. Man will also not also find a challenge in hunting because it will be easy to kill the deer because of the overpopulation.
One point that Leopold was trying to prove to the readers is the fact that by removing or killing any of these species in the mountain, there is a negative impact on the ecosystem. It is, therefore, important for everyone to “think like the mountain” which is not bothered by the fact that it holds several species in it. Leopold believes that people should live harmoniously with nature in a similar manner like the mountain does with all the species inside it.
Leopold’s argument is important because it encourages sustainable development to preserve the environment which is currently being threatened by climate change. The only way in which nature will remain fit and contact is if people take responsibility by caring about the environment (Rawsthorn, 2010). There have been cases of environmental pollution attributed by human activities. However, in the essay, Leopold encourages people to think about what will better their lives and make their lives more secure. He advises people to secure the environment especially the wildlife as a way to save the world. It is true that the environment can only be saved if people become more mindful of the ways in which they interact with nature. For instance, they should prevent polluting the environment knowingly in order to benefit economically. This kind of act can end up causing more damage to nature, wildlife and also to humanity.
In conclusion, if Leopold’s advice is not taken into account, sustainability will not be achieved and just like the wolf, people will watch the environment die. If this happens, it will be too late to save mankind and also wildlife. In the end, people will be left scrambling for the little value that they are left with in the environment. It is high time that people, the government and organizations take actions towards preserving the environment. This is the only way to secure the future of everyone including the plants, animals and human
Alexander-Kearns, M., & Cassady, A. (2015). Cutting carbon pollution while promoting economic growth. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/reports/2015/05/27/113865/cutting-carbon-pollution-while-promoting-economic-growth/
Klein, N. (2014). This Changes Everything. In The right is right: The revolutionary power of climate change. New York: Resilience Publishers
Leopold, A. (1994). Thinking Like a Mountain. Alaska: Libby Roderick.
Rawsthorn, A. (2010, Jan 31). Debating sustainability. New York Times.
Roosevelt Institute. (2011). Fracking mess: Natural gas is not the fuel of the future. Retrieved from http://rooseveltforward.org/fracking-mess-natural-gas-not-fuel-future/
Vignette, O. (n.d). Fracking for natural gas: Clean energy solution or environmental catastrophe? The Wall Street Journal.
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